At the beginning of the present work, presenting the theme of digital inclusion in the school, it is said that it has the purpose of addressing facets of digital inclusion, characterized for the most part in a field research. In this sense, authors from different areas were used to support the study, thus obtaining a broader view of the reality in which digital inclusion is present in the school and, in fact, in the students’ reality.
In this way, the specific objective was defined as: to analyze the school as a space of interaction and communication provided by digital inclusion. In this line, we sought to understand that network technologies need to be part of everyday school life. The valorization of learning through digital media, various ways of thinking and interacting through the media and information where the student appropriates ICT (information and communication technologies) is the way to be traced.
As part of the learning process, such technologies need to be appropriate and understood by teachers, who play a key role in this process. Through an interaction by the teachers with the technological resources, they end up interacting with the reality that the student is inserted.
It should not be overlooked that, in training courses, they do not have so much contact with technology as a way of teaching, thus leading to unpreparedness when choosing or needing technological resources.
In a brief report, in this work there was an indication about the programs that the federal government executes and supports in favor of the digital inclusion of the citizens. Faced with this, schools have gradually adapted to the initiatives presented to it. Within a level of information and communication, the school environment begins to open the way for technology to happen in this process.
In view of this, we intend to address more deeply the related theme through a field research report, where we sought to explore, to know and to understand how the process of digital inclusion and the school reality that the students are inserted. Often, due to lack of infrastructure in schools or little encouragement from teachers, students end up showing little interactivity with cyberspace.
With a view to the better understanding and appropriation of the content, it was aimed to know the opinion of professors specialists in the area, who in this way can contribute qualitatively to a careful and elaborated research.
Thus, in understanding that digital inclusion plays a very important role in the learning process, as it seeks to train citizens with the capacity to interact with others and share decisions / information that foster the logic of information in the service of interactivity.
Through the restlessness that seeks to understand: is the school, as a member of the citizen’s formation, providing the space for the digital inclusion of the individuals who share it? In seeking to answer the question, we sought, through theoretical references, a field research work and applying educational software, to understand and seek to confront theory with practice.
Being the introduction the first chapter and according to the methodological procedure, present the yearnings of this work and the form that will be developed. Then, the third chapter on information and communication technologies, and the importance of digital inclusion in the school environment in the fourth chapter, complementing the theoretical study of research. In the following chapters, the field research begins, and the fifth chapter is characterized by the description and analysis of the questionnaires evaluated by teachers and students. In the sixth chapter, the application of the Régua e Compasso software and its development is carried out. At the end of this work, the seventh chapter presents the final considerations, following the references and appendices.
2 METHODOLOGICAL PROCEDURE
The present study aims to study, apply and report the importance of digital inclusion in school, especially a public school in the municipality of Lagoa Vermelha. Through this exploratory research and in the field research reports, we sought to investigate the real situation that the school presents at this moment.
In order to understand how digital inclusion happens, that is, tools for its accomplishment, a study was carried out based on the thoughts of several authors about information and communication technologies and digital inclusion, which is characterized as technological tools for the student becomes digitally included.
When feeling the need to clearly understand the faces that guide digital inclusion, two professors from the area of interest were asked, among them Professor Adriano Canabarro Teixeira, in charge of the “Mutirão por Inclusão Digital” project and researcher in the area. opinion about issues that instigated the thought of the author of the CBT in relation to the theme of this research and, through a questionnaire, the same contributed with its ideas in a productive way, causing that there was a greater interaction on the subject.
There was also the important contribution of Professor Max G. Haetinger, where he had the opportunity to meet him, through a lecture he gave at a book fair. In the opportunity was acquired a book of his authorship with the title “Computers in Education: a creative look”, which also was used as reference in this work. The teacher participated in this research, so he answered the questionnaire on digital inclusion, recording a video, answering and commenting on all the questions.
The research was also characterized by the questioning with seven students of the third year of high school and four teachers from several disciplines of a state public school in the municipality of Lagoa Vermelha / RS, who contributed their opinions and knowledge about it , and at the end, a survey and analysis of the data obtained was performed.
At another time, when carrying out an experiment with developing an activity using mathematical software with public school students. It should be noted that it was chosen in a workshop of the National Day of Mathematics Education of UPF in 2010, where several activities were developed using the mathematical software “Régua e Compasso”, which aims to develop geometric constructions. For this reason, this activity was chosen to apply to the group of students, and through this proposal the students learned another technological tool in the service of education.
After completing the application part, the development of the activity was analyzed through questionnaires given to the students, who expressed their vision regarding participating in an activity of this kind.
Therefore, the field research and the confrontation of the principles of digital inclusion with the reality that the student is subjected, will be highlighted in the final considerations of this work of conclusion of course, pointing out the important aspects of the digital inclusion in the school, the educational process as a means of the use of technological resources and also an analysis of what can be seen through the work developed.
3 INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES
The generalization of the use of technologies in all the environments of daily life makes it possible to perceive that it is surrounded by information and communication technologies (ICTs) in the service of modernity and agility of processes, facilitating and creating a new world. , the school is being inserted in this context. It has been valid to disseminate the importance of the insertion of technological resources in the school and to present practical proposals of a work based on the use of computers, in view of the search for change in the pedagogical practice, since the technologies are increasingly available in the market and gifts at school.
Sancho (2006, p.16) points out that these characteristics of ICT have to be able to transform and create new subsidies for the teaching and learning of education, with the focus that it allows to create and transmit an assimilated knowledge to the formation of the subject. technologies invariably have three types of effects:
First, they alter the structure of interests, which has important consequences in the evaluation of what is considered as a priority, important, fundamental or obsolete and also in the configuration of power relations. Second, they change the character of the symbols when the first human being began to perform comparatively simple operations […] began to change the psychological structure of the memory process, extending it beyond the biological dimensions of the human nervous system . […] Third, they change the nature of the community. At this time, for a large number of individuals, this area may be cyberspace, the whole known world and the virtual. (2006, p.16).
This demonstrates that people who already live among these new technologies do not find great difficulty as those who do not use them, and sooner or later they will feel the need to take ownership involuntarily.
Looking for new horizons, in order to develop an innovative practice, taking advantage of the remaining knowledge and in a homogeneous way, information and communication technologies (ICT) come to be able to attribute transformations that one wants and needs. In this sense, Bonilla (2005, p.21) states that:
ICT, rather than a mere advance in the development of technology, represents a conceptual turn, as these technologies are no longer just an extension of the human senses, where the logos of doing, doing more and better, make up the vision of the world. Information and communication technologies are intellectual technologies, because when they operate with propositions they start to operate on one’s own thinking, a thought that is collective, which is dispersed, horizontally, in the network structure of contemporary society. (2005, p.21).
Thus, information and communication technologies have been installed in the school environment through projects of the government1 and of the schools themselves. In this way, it is created the opportunity for teachers to introduce in their classrooms the use of new technologies available, a fact which unfortunately has not happened in most school institutions.
In order to understand the reason, it can be emphasized that the teachers themselves have not yet interacted with these technologies, in the first instance, some fear of applying them. According to Scheffer (2006, p.13) new possibilities are offered by multimedia systems and exploratory environments that act as learning facilitators. She says that some of these possibilities are educational software, which is defined as a set of computer resources designed with the intention of being used in teaching and learning contexts.
As in any methodology that proposes a different way of teaching, using a technological tool would not be different. For this reason, it needs to be implanted in a project, well thought out to produce this change that one wishes to accomplish. According to Haetinger:
Software can be used in the classroom in a different way than the ones proposed by the manufacturers, creating new ways to exploit these resources, adapting them to each reality to achieve greater interactivity and results, bringing them closer to our communities. It’s like in face-to-face teaching: when we use a book in the classroom, it can only be read, or integrated with other activities. The computer and its applications should be viewed in an open manner, exploring all the possibilities at the sides, looking at the “in between” to give students new alternatives. (2003, page 22).
The fact that the school has not fully absorbed the conditions to enjoy new technologies justifies in part the traditional teaching that has been applied, since teachers still have the view that inserting a technology in the classroom would not complement learning of the proposed contents. According to Bonilla (2005, p.13) the conceptions that one has about education can not escape from the rationality that arose with writing and it is in this way that most educators pass on knowledge, that is, they can not comprehend the rationality of which the thinking of writing and speaking can be incorporated into the new forms of organization and production of knowledge that are emerging with today’s technologies.
According to Betts (1998, p.26) it is important to take as a basis that these educational technologies without a concrete goal are invalid. According to his words:
We can not isolate technology from the whole of educational practice, because, by itself, it is dumb. There is a need for the intervention of a teaching action so that the construction of knowledge occurs. We human beings are by nature learning beings and, consciously or not, the facilitators of the construction of our own knowledge. (1998, p.26).
Analyzing in general, besides these technologies help in the learning in the classroom, outside it would be a complementation in the extra tasks of the teachers, like in the preparation of tests and works, updated materials available of the internet, fillings of the notebooks and aid in the affairs administrative procedures. Finally, it is important and it is necessary for teachers to seek these facilities on their own, since the purpose of this tool is to be used as a means and not as an end in itself, that is, it should be seen as a complementary and necessary resource. According to Sancho (2006, p.19) the main difficulty in transforming teaching contexts with the incorporation of diversified information and communication technologies seems to lie in the fact that the typology of the dominant teaching in the school is teacher-centered.
Thinking in this way, the simplification of the teaching routine would affect the ability of the literacy students to learn about technologies spontaneously, which is elementary, since their students in the everyday have appropriated them. Even those who do not have computers with internet access at home, seek to access it at school or in other places to navigate social networking sites, discussion groups, and even conduct research to help with homework, even without the recommendation of your teacher.
With regard to this interactivity, Menezes (2010, p 122) states:
Communication systems evolve with extreme rapidity and this dynamic is part of the vertiginous modernity in which we are immersed. We can not be dazzled by these novelties or be apprehensive of the danger that they will replace our function of educating. But we must not ignore the possibilities they open to improve our work, such as access to educational support and update sites or to interactive programs for students with learning difficulties. (2010, p. 122).
Therefore, there is no reason to ignore the use of the technologies in the school environment, unless this resource can not be used in order to generate results in the teaching-learning process better than those that are being presented.
For Menezes (2010, 122) one can not charge a good performance of schools if they are decades behind what has already become trivial in social practices, and this is a reality because there are schools with computer rooms where the physical structure apparently supports the idea of a school equipped with technologies, but there is no appropriation of them, which ends up making use obsolete, since teachers are often not prepared to use these technologies.
The interactivity that students have with the technologies are more advanced than their teachers or parents can have, since they, students, were born in the information age and many have more ability to understand the virtual language than the textual language, because there it is about different digital technologies. Therefore, new languages that are part of the daily life of students and schools. This does not mean that current education is worse or outdated, but the reality in which the student is immersed is changing and the school needs to keep pace with this evolution.
It can be considered that some digital technologies, not just computers, are already familiar at school, such as the use of calculators, scientific calculators, televisions and even cell phones. They can be considered as information and communication technologies that have a great contribution to a structured and innovative teaching.
According to Alba (2006, p. 144), new technologies based on telecommunications open possibilities of use to generate new forms of communication, interaction with information and socialization in educational contexts.
Digital technologies can not be ignored if students themselves do not ignore them and are widely accessible. For example, nowadays it is difficult for a middle school student who does not have a cell phone, so why not try to include him in a class activity, since he offers many didactic possibilities. Technologies open a vast array of didactic resources for educators. Many schools, for the time being, forbid them.
3.1 New technological possibilities and the training of teachers prepared to use the new technologies
The rapid technological evolution in several sectors of the society is demanding of the professionals of the education a constant update. In higher courses, the training of new teachers faces a new challenge: to teach the educational practices associated with technologies to improve knowledge in the classroom. The trainee teacher needs to be aware of and understand in which situations the use of technology will aid in student learning.
Analyzing the new profile of the professional and his / her essential skills, Betts (1998, p.28) points out that:
In addition to becoming a lifelong learner and being responsible for one’s career, the worker, in order to succeed in the knowledge age, will have to develop other skills. These three competencies – learning to learn, adaptability and self-discipline – are skills developed in the early years of life; therefore, the great challenge for Brazil is precisely to invest heavily in the quality of early childhood education, because it is there that the future workers of the knowledge age will develop their basic skills for the future of their lives. (1998: 28).
In fact, this new education professional ready to face these changes needs to use their creativity to better take advantage of learning situations, with the ability to share their new experiences with interdisciplinary teams (in school and in pedagogical study groups), engaged in adaptability to different situations, with a critical capacity in the face of technical and humanistic disciplines. It is a new paradigm to be achieved.
The teacher, using these technological resources in favor of content, becomes a mediator of knowledge in a democratized way, as a teacher from Florianópolis / SC reports to Nova Escola Magazine. In her testimony, she focuses on the importance of technology walking side by side with teaching and how it can facilitate student learning. It also emphasizes that some educators still do not feel empowered, while others, excited, misuse resources in unplanned activities.
[…] The fact is that our students are formed within the digital culture and deeply influenced by it. With the democratization of the use of the internet, the growth of the number of lanhouses, the cheapening of computers, and even the implementation of government programs for the computerization of schools, there is no reason to work using only chalkboard and chalk. “(MENEGUELLI , 2010, 49).
Taking into account the teacher’s point of view, ICT should not be considered as a mere instrument that can add content in the classroom, but as a means to complete the educational practice, giving students the opportunity to develop basic technological skills in the information society that the school shares today.
4 THE IMPORTANCE OF DIGITAL INCLUSION IN THE SCHOOL ENVIRONMENT
The school has lived a very important moment in the information society era, where the dissemination of information and communication technologies has inevitably arrived in classrooms. From this perspective, there is an intention to take this integral part of society, students mainly from public schools, to learn about technologies that appropriate the sense of educational computing in a more democratic way.
When a citizen is included digitally, he will be inserted the information society in order to avoid social exclusion, by the use of information and communication technologies, having the right to free access to information.
In order to present the digital inclusion conceptualization, the dimension of the inclusion proposal, we quote the words of Teixeira, where he points out that:
[…] Thus, it is proposed to extend the concept of digital inclusion to a reticular dimension, characterizing it as a horizontal process that must happen from within the groups with a view to the development of network culture, in a perspective that consider processes of interaction, identity building, culture expansion and appreciation of diversity, starting from a posture of creation of own content and exercise of citizenship, to enable the production cycle, consumption and technocultural dependence to be broken. (TEIXEIRA, 2010, p.39).
Through this understanding, one can perceive the dimension about the appropriation of technological resources, be it in the school environment or even in the daily life of the student. It is necessary to know that to include digitally is to make technology available and make it an instrument of teaching and even of possibility of social inclusion.
With these technological possibilities that arise along with the network technologies, it is necessary to understand that to include digitally is still a process of collaboration, where the network becomes an environment of exchange of information and knowledge, making sense in validating the citizenship, exercising in a democratic and conscious way.
4.1 Digital inclusion programs supported by the Federal Government
The following statistics are the result of the survey on digital inclusion initiatives in Brazil and their respective digital inclusion points (PIDs). The amounts presented are organized by: administrative regions (North, Northeast, Midwest, Southeast and South), units of the federation (UF) and categories (Federal Government, State Government, Municipal Government, Third Sector and Universities).
Citizenship and human rights in university education
The teaching of citizenship and human rights content has been emphasized, as part of the cross-cutting themes proposed in the National Curriculum Parameters (PCN), mainly in Brazilian basic education (at the elementary and high school levels). In the various disciplines, it is proposed to introduce different approaches to sometimes difficult treatment themes, such as ethnic, cultural, religious, social, sexual and physical discrimination, or other, more abstract ones, such as the exercise of citizenship in an active way. tcc, monografias, monografias prontas, dissertação de mestrado e tese de doutorado , in a condition of almost social marginality. Although they are relevant aspects for the formation of students, it is worth noting how teachers appropriate these contents and how they develop them, sometimes in opposite situations to what is intended to be promoted.
Undoubtedly, the presence of such content in formal education is an advance if compared to what was intended to be disseminated as “citizenship” during the period of the infamous Moral and Civic Education in Brazilian education, created by the authoritarian government in 1969 ( Decree-Law No. 869) and extinguished only in 1993. At the time, “human rights” were posed as a weapon of subversion of the regime, a risk to the dictatorship’s institutional normality, as it was an argument for defending persecuted, imprisoned and tortured opponents, although Brazil was a signatory to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights of 1948. On the other hand, citizenship, which before 1964 appeared in education almost metaphysically (in the form of civism already removed from its transforming potential of the French revolutionary conquests), became a discourse adjusted to behavior modeled on the converging obscurantist ideals of the political right, conservative Catholics the National Security Doctrine tcc, monografias, monografias prontas, dissertação de mestrado e tese de doutorado. The end of the authoritarian regime, with the establishment of a democratic regime, has undergone a process of restoration of the original sense of citizenship and human rights – although a long way has yet to be taken before both can be fully recognized.
The classic concept of citizenship refers to the much cited chapter “Citizenship and social class” in TH Marshall’s book, Citizenship, social class and “status”, where the author, from a basically European framework, distinguishes three rights that once appeared. successive: 18th century civil rights, 19th century political rights, and 20th century social rights. This typology is still valid for didactic purposes, although over time the concept has expanded, including culture, the economy, as well as collective and diffuse rights and other more controversial, such as sexual diversity.
Among other things, there is a school way of disseminating the values of citizenship and human rights, ideally based on tolerance. It is not appropriate here to assess the failure or success of this way of working on such important content. It is a question of verifying how the teachers of basic education have, in their formation at the university level (or in improvement courses), the contact with the contents of citizenship and, above all, of human rights tcc, monografias, monografias prontas, dissertação de mestrado e tese de doutorado, because they are in a privileged situation for the dissemination of these values among students. Some careers have such contents as a subject of study in law, social science, philosophy, theology, etc., which is different from having them as curriculum content of human rights education. Therefore, it is healthy that proposals for content to be inserted in university education appear, either in the formation of graduates, or as a proposal for the promotion and construction of a culture where human rights are not only a distant theoretical reference.
There is already a production focused on the contents of citizenship and human rights education directed to university education. As an example, two works specifically directed to this end can be cited. The first of these, Human Rights Education tcc, monografias, monografias prontas, dissertação de mestrado e tese de doutorado: Themes, Issues and Proposals (Sacavino & Candau, 2008), deals with the activities developed by the non-governmental organization Novamerica, which aims to develop the Human Rights, Education and Citizenship Program, promoted by the Interinstitutional Network. Human Rights, Citizenship and Democracy Education.
Among the texts of the book, there is the chapter “Human Rights Education and Teacher Education” (p. 73-92), by Vera Maria Candau, which deals, as the title indicates, with teacher education. The author situates in the text the development of human rights education in Latin America, which is generally very recent and is more related to the practices of popular and non-formal education and human rights activists. In some countries, including Brazil, this education has been asserting itself in the context of formal education, although suffering from changes in public management tcc, monografias, monografias prontas, dissertação de mestrado e tese de doutorado. A relevant aspect pointed out by the author is that the values of neoliberal conservatism, coated with a modernizing appearance and prevalent in the region from the late 1980s, are incorporated as a new form of citizenship by the population, making it difficult to expand democracy, yet of low intensity, only exercised in the periodic repetition of the elections. At the same time, the author mentions that human rights education has been “widening” (sic) and entering schools, even bumping into rigid curricula.
It is then necessary to introduce the theme “human rights” in teacher education (p. 83). As an example, the author presents two experiences of teacher education in human rights content. The first refers to the continuing education developed by the NGO Novamerica, through three cycles of workshops, human rights foundations, deepening in subjects such as curriculum, cultural selection, power and work relations, evaluation, conflicts and violence at school and enrichment, also addressing issues such as gender relations, race, cultural diversity, prejudice and discrimination, environment, etc., always referring to the school reality. The evaluation, according to the author, has been very positive, having already produced teaching material for use with students.
The second experience concerns the introduction of elective discipline on human rights in undergraduate courses at the USP (UNESCO Chair for Education for Peace, Human Rights, Democracy and Tolerance) and at PUC-Rio tcc, monografias, monografias prontas, dissertação de mestrado e tese de doutorado. The author describes the discipline of the latter, organized around three major units, dealing with the fundamentals and contexts of human rights, the analysis of international and national documents that are references for human rights, and the discussion of current issues focused on human rights. school.
With a different intention, the book Education on human rights in university education: texts for seminars (Cardoso, 2009) offers a proposal to insert the theme human rights in university education in a systematic way, through contents focused on each of the areas of education. academic The collection was produced by the UNESP tcc, monografias, monografias prontas, dissertação de mestrado e tese de doutorado Observatory of Human Rights Education, based at the Faculty of Architecture, Arts and Communication, Bauru, and presents, in this first volume, ten texts for different courses: Philosophy, History, Sociology, Politics, Education , Communication, Public Health, Biology, Law and International Relations. Although unequal (which is absolutely normal in a work with such intent), the chapters provide a stimulating opportunity to develop, from the interest of teachers and students, an opening to the importance of human rights in the context of the chosen profession. Thus, one can seek to overcome the alienation that the increasingly technified and marketed system of higher education has been developing in place of critical thinking and scientific knowledge, previously privileged in this stage of education.
The rapid growth of knowledge in recent years has made traditional teaching based solely on oral transmission of information impracticable. In many disciplines it is no longer possible, within hours, to convey all relevant content tcc, monografias, monografias prontas, dissertação de mestrado e tese de doutorado. Most importantly, knowledge is not finished, and much of what the student will need to know in his working life is yet to be discovered.
The challenge of the university today is to train individuals capable of seeking knowledge and knowing how to use it. Unlike in the past, when the important thing was to dominate knowledge, today I think that the important thing is to “dominate ignorance”, that is, facing a problem for which he does not have the answer ready, the professional must know how to seek knowledge. relevant, and, when not available, knowing how to find the answers themselves through research.
It will not be by making our students mere repositories of information that we will be training the citizens and professionals that society needs. For this, activities, curricular or not, focused on problem solving and knowledge of our reality, become important tools for the formation of our students.
It is within this perspective that the early insertion of the undergraduate student in research projects becomes a valuable instrument for enhancing desired qualities in a higher education professional tcc, monografias, monografias prontas, dissertação de mestrado e tese de doutorado, as well as for stimulating and initiating the formation of those more research oriented.
To develop a research project it is necessary to search the existing knowledge in the area, formulate the problem and the way to deal with it, collect and analyze data, and draw conclusions. You learn to deal with the unknown and find new knowledge.
The institutional mechanisms for this insertion are the curricular internships and the scientific initiation tcc, monografias, monografias prontas, dissertação de mestrado e tese de doutorado. We need to expand scientific initiation as a curricular activity, worth credit and properly evaluated, to enable better training of our students.
The Scientific Initiation Week is part of the effort to value this activity, because it gives the student the opportunity to expose their work to other members of the university community. The participation of all, with criticism and suggestions to the works presented, represents a great contribution to the formation of our students.